A Jacobite Gazetteer - France

Versailles


During their exile in France, King James II and VII, Queen Mary Beatrice, and their son, King James III and VIII frequently visited the Palace of Versailles which is less than 10 km south of their own residence at Saint-Germain-en-Laye.

Today the Palace of Versailles is a museum. Among the collections are a number of Stuart portraits as well as other portraits of Jacobite interest. Most of these are copies, some contemporary, others ordered by Louis Philippe, duc d'Orléans, called "King of the French", for the historical museum which he created at Versailles.

Most of the works listed here are in the Musée de l'histoire de France. Only the major rooms of this museum are usually open to the public. Special arrangements must be made in advance to see other rooms which are normally closed.

James, Duke of York
James, Duke of York

There is a portrait of King James II and VII when Duke of York.1 Louis Philippe, duc d'Orléans, added it to the Versailles collection. James wears armour and rests his right hand on a visor. The portrait may have been painted in 1649 when James was living in Paris and at Saint-Germain with his mother Queen Henrietta Maria.


King James II and VII
King James II and VII

Queen Mary Beatrice
Queen Mary Beatrice

There are matching portraits of James II and VII and his wife Queen Mary Beatrice.2 Both paintings were formerly oval, but were modified when they were added to the Versailles collection by Louis Philippe, duc d'Orléans. There are similar portraits of King Charles II and his wife Queen Catherine.3

King James III
King James III, by Alexis-Simon Belle

There is a 1712 portrait of King James III and VIII by Alexis-Simon Belle.4 A very slightly larger version of the portrait is owned by the "United Kingdom Government Art Collection".5 James is shown wearing a metal breastplate over a green velvet coat embroidered with gold at the cuffs. He has a red sash around his waist and the blue sash of the Order of the Garter over the breastplate. His left arm rests on a metal visor.

Queen Maria Clementina
Queen Maria Clementina

There is a portrait of Queen Clementina.6 It is an old copy of the 1727 portrait by Antonio David another copy of which is in the Convente di San Clemente in Rome. Maria Clementina wears a sheer veil and a stole of ermine. At her left is a royal crown. In her hand she holds a book (presumably a prayer-book). The portrait was added to the Versailles collection by Louis Philippe, called "King of the French".

There is a portrait of a young Henry, Duke of York (later King Henry IX).7 The portrait is sometimes described as being Charles, Prince of Wales (later King Charles III) - but it is more likely to be his younger brother. The portrait is a copy of a 1740 work by Domenico Dupra.8 Henry is shown bewigged and in armour with a large red sash around his waist. He wears the blue sash of the Order of the Garter and the green neck badge of the Order of the Thistle. In one hand he holds a baton while the other hand rests on a helmet. Corp lists two other versions of the portrait, both in private collections.9

Henry, Duke of York
Henry, Duke of York

There is a portrait of Charles III, this one in middle-age, with a matching portrait of his wife Queen Louise.10 The two portraits are copies painted in 1845 by Louis-Édouard Rioult. They were commissioned by Louis Philippe, duc d'Orléans. Charles is shown in armour with a crown at his side; he points with his right hand to a battle scene in the background. Louise is shown with a rose hanging from her left hand; in the background is the city of London. Both portraits are copies of works by Laurent Pecheux now at Stanford Hall.11 In 1770 Pecheux was working in Rome and was commissioned to paint Charles; the portrait of Louise was completed in 1775.12

King Charles III
King Charles III, by Louis-Édouard Rioult
Queen Louise
Queen Louise, by Louis-Édouard Rioult
Henry, Cardinal Duke of York
Henry, Cardinal Duke of York

There is a portrait of Henry, Cardinal Duke of York (later King Henry IX) attributed to Domenico Corvi.13 Henry is shown standing at a desk and dressed as a cardinal in a red mozetta (but without a pectoral cross); in his left hand he holds a book, while his right hand rests upon another book on the desk. This work bears some similarity to two other portraits of Henry by Corvi, one at Holyroodhouse Palace and the other at the Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford, Connecticut.14

There are several portraits of Queen Clotilde, wife of King Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia (later King Charles IV). She was the sister of King Louis XVI of France, and his brothers Louis XVIII and Charles X, and was known as "Madame Clotilde" until her marriage. There is a copy of a portrait by François-Hubert Drouais showing the infant Clotilde seated on a goat with her brother the comte d'Artois standing behind.15 This copy was painted for Clotilde's aunt Madame Adelaide. The original is in the Louvre. There are two copies of a lost portrait of Clotilde painted by Drouais in 1773 when Clotilde was fourteen.16 There is a copy of a portrait of Clotilde by Drouais as an adult.17 There is another portrait by Drouais showing Clotilde playing the guitar.18

Madame Clotilde, with the comte d'Artois
Madame Clotilde, with the comte d'Artois
Queen Clotilde of Sardinia
Madame Clotilde, after Drouais
Queen Clotilde of Sardinia
Madame Clotilde, after Drouais
Queen Clotilde of Sardinia
Queen Clotilde of Sardinia

There are several other portraits of lesser interest to Jacobites: Henry, Lord Darnley, husband of Queen Mary II and I; the sisters of King Charles IV and King Victor - Marie-Josephine-Louise, comtesse de Provence, later Queen of France, and Marie-Therese, comtesse d'Artois, also later Queen of France.

In the Galerie des Battailles, which was built to commemorate French military history, there is a bust of James Fitz-James, 1st Duke of Berwick, illegitimate son of King James II and VII. The bust was sculpted by Antoine Laurent Dantan in 1839.19 After fighting for his father's cause in Ireland, Berwick served in the French army. He was named a Marshall of France in 1706.

James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick
James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick, by Dantan ainé

Notes

1 MV 3558. Claire Constans, Les Peintures, Musée national du château de Versailles (Paris: Réunion des musées nationaux, 1995), II, 1028. The oil on canvas painting measures 145 cm high and 93 cm wide.

2 MV 3616 and MV 3617. Constans, II, 1030. The oil on canvas painting of James measures 110 cm high and 122 cm wide. The oil on canvas painting of Mary Beatrice measures 109 cm high and 121 cm wide.

3 MV 3589 and MV 3590. Constans, II, 1029-1030.

4 MV 4376. Constans, I, 77. The oil on canvas painting measures 135 cm high and 96 cm wide; it was acquired from the Joyeau family in 1844. Alexis-Simon Belle was born in Paris in 1674, and died in the same city in 1734. In spite of the fact that he won the Prix de Rome, he chose not to train at Rome but rather to remain in France. In 1701 he moved to Saint-Germain-en-Laye where he worked for the English and Scottish court. He painted at least ten portraits of King James III and VIII, as well as others of his parents and his sister Princess Louise-Marie.

5 Edward Corp, The King over the Water: Portraits of the Stuarts in Exile after 1689 (Edinburgh: Scottish National Portrait Gallery, 2001), 51 and 107.

6 MV 4377. Constans, II, 1108. The oil on canvas painting measures 65 cm high and 53 cm wide.

7 MV 4598. Constans, I, 288. Joconde: Catalogue des Collections des Musées de France. The oil on canvas painting measures 112 cm high and 72 cm wide; it was acquired from the Orléans family in 1840.

8 Edward Corp, The King over the Water: Portraits of the Stuarts in Exile after 1689 (Edinburgh: Scottish National Portrait Gallery, 2001), 79 and 109. The original is somewhat smaller (71.8 cm X 59.1 cm). The original as well as another copy are both in private collections.

9 Edward Corp, 79 and 109. Constans says that one of these versions was at Keir House, the former home of the Stirlings, but the house was sold in 1975, and the collections auctioned in 1995.

10 MV 4599 and MV 4600. Constans, II, 777. Both oval portraits are oil on canvas and measure 73 cm high and 57 cm wide. Louis-Édouard Rioult was born in Montdidier in 1790 and died in Paris in 1855; he produced several dozen portrait copies for Louis-Philippe's historical museum.

11 Corp, 99 and 109. Laurent Pecheux was born in 1729 and died in 1821. Lauren Pecheux was born in Lyons in 1729 and died in Turin in 1821. In 1777 he was named first painter to King Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia, father of King Charles IV and King Victor.

12 Robin Nicholson, Bonnie Prince Charlie and the Making of a Myth: A Study in Portraiture, 1720-1892 (Lewisburg, Pennsylvania: Bucknell University Press, 2002), 89-90.

13 MV 4601. Constans, I, 184. The oil on canvas painting measures 100 cm high and 75 cm wide. It was acquired from the French painter François Marius Granet in 1842; Granet lived in Rome from 1802 to 1819.

14 Cf. Corp, 88-89.

15 MV 3898. Constans, I, 269. The oil on canvas painting measures 119 cm high and 97 cm wide. François-Huber Drouais was born in Paris in 1727 and died in the same city in 1775. He painted numerous portraits of the French Royal Family and court. His somewhat more famous son was the history painter Jean Germain Drouais.

16 MV 3902 and MV 7428. Constans, I, 272 and 274. Both works are oval. The first is an oil on canvas which measures 65 cm high and 54 cm wide. The second is an oil on canvas which measures 57 cm high and 52 cm wide.

17 MV 3973. Constans, I, 273. The oil on canvas painting measures 55 cm high and 53 cm wide.

18 MV 3972. Constans, I, 269. The oil on canvas painting measures 83 cm high and 68 cm wide.

19 Antoine Laurent Dantan, called Dantan ainé, was born at Saint Cloud in 1798 and died at the same town in 1878. In 1824 he sculpted a bust of King Charles X of France, brother-in-law of King Charles IV and King Victor.

Image (James, Duke of York): Constans, II, 1028.

Image (King James II and VII): Joconde: Catalogue des Collections des Musées de France.

Image (Queen Mary Beatrice): Constans, II, 1030.

Image (King James III, by Alexis-Simon Belle): Constans, I, 77.

Image (Queen Maria Clementina): Constans, II, 1108.

Image (Henry, Duke of York): Joconde: Catalogue des Collections des Musées de France.

Image (King Charles III, by Louis-Édouard Rioult): Constans, II, 777.

Image (Queen Louise, by Louis-Édouard Rioult): Constans, II, 777.

Image (Henry, Cardinal Duke of York): Constans, I, 184.

Image (Madame Clotilde with the comte d'Artois): Constans, I, 269.

Image (Madame Clotilde, after Drouais): Constans, I, 272.

Image (Madame Clotilde, after Drouais): Constans, I, 274.

Image (Queen Clotilde of Sardinia): Constans, I, 273.

Image (James Fitz-James, 1st Duke of Berwick, by Dantan ainé): http://www.wikiphidias.fr


This page is maintained by Noel S. McFerran (noel.mcferran@rogers.com) and was last updated July 14, 2017.
© Noel S. McFerran 2007-2017.